## Program Verification Through Characteristic FormulaeAbstractThis paper describes CFML, the first program verification tool based on characteristic formulae. Given the source code of a pure Caml program, this tool generates a logical formula that implies any valid post-condition for that program. One can then prove that the program satisfies a given specification by reasoning interactively about the characteristic formula using a proof assistant such as Coq. Our characteristic formulae improve over Honda et al's total characteristic assertion pairs in that they are expressible in standard higher-order logic, allowing to exploit them in practice to verify programs using existing proof assistants. Our technique has been applied to formally verify more than half of the content of Okasaki's Purely Functional Data Structures reference book. ## Paper |